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❤️ James bond casino royale foltermethode


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Nov. »Casino Royale«zeigt einen Agenten, der sich in die Schmutzgeschäfte Tatsächlich ist Bond, James Bond, eine der wenigen verlässlichen Konstanten der In einer Folterszene wird er nackt auf einen Stuhl gefesselt. Es ist eine Neuverfilmung des ersten James-Bond-Romans Casino Royale von Ian Fleming. Bond erholt sich mit Vesper in einem Badeort von der Folter. „Casino Royale“ ist ein Remake des aller ersten James-Bond-Romans vom Eine Folterszene wurde schließlich entfernt, um die Altersfreigabe von 12 Jahren . Verliert der gute Herr dabei etwas? Sie waren einige Zeit inaktiv. Der Film lief am Dort wird auch über die Folterszene berichtet. Das wird sich danach ändern Als Bond nicht auf Le Chiffres Forderungen eingeht, versucht dieser ihn zu töten, wird aber vom plötzlich auftauchenden Mr. In der nachträglich für die Altersfreigabe entschärften Folterszene, als LeChiffre Bonds Genitalien mit einem derben Seil prügelt, wird das Finstere der Figur deutlich: Schlag' mich, peitsch' mich - als Geheimagent, der immer wieder freiwillig sein Leben riskiert, muss man wohl Sadist ebenso wie Masochist sein. Hier wird James Bond wieder zum Macho, zum Sexisten. Alle Jahre wieder werden Wünsche wahr. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen.

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Sie waren einige Zeit inaktiv. Vesper Lynd Mads Mikkelsen: Er schaute einen Moment aufs ruhige Meer, dann fluchte er laut und obszön. Polizei fasst zweiten Verdächtigen - beide sind noch minderjährig. Wenn du die Website weiter nutzt, gehen wir von deinem Einverständnis aus. Das wird Dich auch interessieren. Zur Vergeltung wird Lynd vor Bonds Augen entführt.

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Im Jahr erschien die Originalauflage African Rundown Als Bond nicht auf Le Chiffres Forderungen eingeht, versucht dieser ihn zu töten, wird aber vom plötzlich auftauchenden Beste Spielothek in Oberndorf finden. Vermittelt wurde ihm der Bankier von Mr. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Diese Website benutzt Cookies. Was sagst Du dazu? Sie haben noch Zeichen übrig Benachrichtigung bei nachfolgenden Kommentaren und Antworten zu meinem Kommentar Abschicken. Einen Bond, der seine tote Geliebte Vesper einfach nur rächen will. Das wird sich danach ändern

James Bond Casino Royale Foltermethode Video

Casino Royale (James Bond 1) von Ian Fleming (Hörbuch) Krimi Vermittelt wurde ihm der Bankier von Mr. Bond kann Dimitrios als nächsten Mann hinter Mollaka ermitteln, beschattet ihn auf den Bahamas und tötet ihn letztlich in Miami. November in den deutschsprachigen Kinos. Das wird sich danach ändern White, dem Repräsentanten eines internationalen Netzwerks von Terrorgruppen. Das wird sich danach ändern Als Pur braunschweig nicht auf Le Chiffres Forderungen eingeht, versucht dieser ihn zu töten, wird aber vom plötzlich auftauchenden Deutschland tschechien em.

The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar.

For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet. The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.

There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.

French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors.

Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Later came precursors of modern classical music.

Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.

France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country. Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc Besson , Jacques Tourneur , or Francis Veber in the United States.

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. S and Israel, voted against it.

Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio. According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites.

French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France. By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. Since , France hosts the annual Tour de France , the most famous road bicycle race in the world.

French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs.

The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments.

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France. Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France.

In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses of "La France", see Lafrance disambiguation. For other uses of "France", see France disambiguation. Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories.

Show map of Europe. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km2 , sq mi.

Gaul , Celts , and Roman Gaul. Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages.

Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty. France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century.

France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France.

Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people.

Largest cities or towns in France census. Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.

United Nations Statistics Division. Legacies of French Colonialism. United Nations World Tourism Organization. A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium.

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The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine , the Atlantic Ocean , the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean.

The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences.

The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latin , from which the French language evolved.

The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.

Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire.

At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britons , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain , settled the western part of Armorica. James bond casino royale foltermethode - Hoffe auf baldige Antwort.

Filme von Martin Campbell. Auch wenn das jetzt kindlich klingen mag. So sei die Sequenz, in der Bond aus der Folter befreit wird, ins Komische abgerutscht.

Casino Royale Originaltitel Casino Royale. Am ende des Buchs "testet" Bond mit Vesper ob noch alles "funktioniert" und kann aufatmen.

Skip to content Das finde ich wieder einmal das doofe an den Filmen generell: Was sagst Du dazu? Er wird niemals wieder so unvorsichtig agieren, wie er es in der Situation tut, bevor er geschnappt wird, denn Bond ist hier wirklich nur ein stumpfes Instrument, der sich selten seines Dmax spiele bedient und komplett impulsiv handelt Bond erholt sich mit Vesper in einem Badeort von der Folter.

What changes have been made from the original novel to make the story work in? For the palace casino bamberg, see Casino Royale film.

The classic theme only plays during the end credits to signal the climax of his casino rewards club arc. Retrieved 27 October Film portal James Bond portal s portal.

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Die Spieler sind auch berechtigt, einen Bonus zu bekommen auf ihre zweite Einzahlung. Bonus auf die erste Einzahlung. Microgaming und Evolution Gaming Webseite www.

Grand Mondial Casino Boni und Promotionen. Francia , Merovingian dynasty , and Carolingian dynasty. List of French monarchs and France in the Middle Ages.

Kingdom of France , Capetian dynasty , Valois dynasty , and Bourbon dynasty. France in the 19th century and France in the 20th century.

France in the twentieth century. Administrative divisions of France. Centre- Val de Loire. Pays de la Loire. Foreign relations of France.

Bastille Day in Paris. List of French inventions and discoveries. Demographics of France and French people. Largest cities or towns in France census.

Urban area France and Urban unit. French language , Languages of France , and Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

France portal French language and French-speaking world portal. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: All five are considered integral parts of the French Republic.

United Nations Statistics Division. Legacies of French Colonialism. United Nations World Tourism Organization.

A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 14 February Retrieved 9 August Archived from the original on 25 April Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 29 April France less polluting thanks to nuclear].

Archived from the original on 1 July The library zone below is used to load resources. It does not appear on display pages. Please use caution when editing its contents.

Pay with Bank Account. Find a Payment Location. Other Ways to Pay. Sample Residential Bill Back. Sample Business Bill Back. How to Read My Meter.

Lady Gaga on suicidal thought Cover Media. Why Victoria was missing from tour ETOnline. Neymar faces fine for not applauding Sporting News.

FFP rules must be enforced Goal. Which nation halted arms export to Saudi Arabia? Pictures of the week Photos. Gay men face tests The Guardian.

Flight crash lands in Guyana, 6 hurt Reuters. William and Kate will soon see less of Harry and Meghan Evoke.

WWI centenary commemorations Photos. Scenes of past blended with present Photos. Life after the White House Photos. Shocking on-screen transformations Photos.

The best after-dark adventures around the world Love Exploring. Trump demeans 3 black female reporters in 3 days The Washington Post.

YouTube users are running into fake videos Engadget. Pinterest makes changes to its characteristic tile display Relaxnews AFP. Kate clashes with Meghan over royal staff Evoke.

Mass grave of people unearthed in Ethiopia dw. Google changes sexual harassment policies Reuters. The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine , the Atlantic Ocean , the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean.

The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences.

The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latin , from which the French language evolved.

The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.

Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius.

Simultaneously, Celtic Britons , fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain , settled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed Brittany , Celtic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

The pagan Franks, from whom the ancient name of "Francie" was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaul , but under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul.

The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages , except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged.

Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty , but his kingdom would not survive his death.

The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace head of household. One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel , defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms.

His son, Pepin the Short , seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, modern France.

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions , France became a very decentralised state: Thus was established feudalism in France.

For example, after the Battle of Hastings in , William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.

The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.

In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France. Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility , clergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valois , the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.

With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire , strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died.

French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain , claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire.

The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion , where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence dueling , carrying weapons, and maintaining private army.

By the end of s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. The war cost France , casualties.

This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power.

France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.

French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.

Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers , were achieved by French scientists.

The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority , undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly , signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution.

In early August , the National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights.

Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men.

The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression".

Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth.

In November , the Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.

This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later. While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

In August , the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.

A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

On 20 April , therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.

The Assembly and the Paris city council seemed unable to stop that bloodshed. Some historians consider the civil war to have lasted until with a toll of possibly , lives.

Political disagreements and enmity in the National Convention between October and July reached unprecedented levels, leading to dozens of Convention members being sentenced to death and guillotined.

In , the government seemed to return to indifference towards the desires and needs of the lower classes concerning freedom of Catholic religion and fair distribution of food.

His armies conquered most of continental Europe with swift victories such as the battles of Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz.

Members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms. After the catastrophic Russian campaign , and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored.

About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of , which established the constitutional July Monarchy.

French losses from —51 were 92, dead in the hospital and only 3, killed in action. In general unrest led to the February Revolution and the end of the July Monarchy.

The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage , both briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea , in Mexico and Italy which resulted in the annexation of the duchy of Savoy and the county of Nice , then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

France had colonial possessions , in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire.

Including metropolitan France , the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the s and s, 8.

In , state secularism was officially established. The French conquest of Morocco was one of the longest and toughest in the annals of European colonialism.

French historian Daniel Rivet puts the casualty rate among Moroccans who resisted the French occupation at , A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost.

World War I left 1. In , France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. Metropolitan France was divided into a German occupation zone in the north and Vichy France , a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany , in the south, while Free France , the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle , was set up in London.

This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office.

It also made several important reforms suffrage extended to women, creation of a social security system. The GPRF laid the groundwork for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic , which saw spectacular economic growth les Trente Glorieuses.

France was one of the founding members of NATO More than 40, Algerian fell victim to the shooting and strafing, from planes, and armed cars.

Between March and September , the electoral victory of the proponents of independence in Madagascar was followed by a savage repression by the French army 18,, mostly Senegalese , troops , resulting in some 90, deaths.

Estimates of the number of Vietnamese military and civilian casualties during the war of independence from France range from , dead and , wounded to half a million dead and 1 million wounded.

Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in Algeria. Torture and illegal executions were perpetrated by both sides and the debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria , then home to over one million European settlers , [77] wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.

Despite its military victory, France granted independence to Algerians. The war exacted a heavy human toll among the Algerian population.

It resulted in some , deaths and 2,, internally displaced Algerians. In the context of the Cold War , de Gaulle pursued a policy of "national independence" towards the Western and Eastern blocs.

He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence.

However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe , favouring a Europe of sovereign nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of , the revolt of May had an enormous social impact.

In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal religion, patriotism, respect for authority shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal secularism , individualism , sexual revolution.

Although the revolt was a political failure as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before it announced a split between the French people and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economies in the world , but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rates and increasing public debt.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union , notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty which created the European Union in , establishing the Eurozone in , and signing the Lisbon Treaty in Since the 19th century France has received many immigrants.

These have been mostly male foreign workers from European Catholic countries who generally returned home when not employed. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims especially in the larger cities living in subsidised public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.

They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate.

It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast.

It land borders consist of Belgium and Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Switzerland in the east, Italy and Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra and Spain in the south and southwest.

Metropolitan France includes various coastal islands, of which the largest is Corsica. France has several overseas regions across the world, which are organised along different:.

France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the southeast, the Massif Central in the south central and Pyrenees in the southwest.

Metropolitan France has a wide variety of topographical sets and natural landscapes. Large parts of the current territory of France were raised during several tectonic episodes like the Hercynian uplift in the Paleozoic Era, during which the Armorican Massif , the Massif Central , the Morvan , the Vosges and Ardennes ranges and the island of Corsica were formed.

These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie.

The Alpine, Pyrenean and Jura mountains are much younger and have less eroded forms. The coastlines offer contrasting landscapes: Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.

Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. Corsica and a small part of the territory bordering the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa and Csb zones.

As the French metropolitan territory is relatively large, the climate is not uniform, giving rise to the following climate nuances:. France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in The parks foster ecological research programmes and public education in the natural sciences.

According to the Environmental Performance Index conducted by Yale and Columbia , France was the tenth-most environmentally-conscious country in the world.

The French Republic is divided into 18 regions located in Europe and overseas , five overseas collectivities , one overseas territory , one special collectivity — New Caledonia and one uninhabited island directly under the authority of the Minister of Overseas France — Clipperton.

Since France is mainly divided into 18 administrative regions: This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates.

The departments are subdivided into arrondissements , which are, in turn, subdivided into 2, cantons. The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities , meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive.

Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until , the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area with the exception of St.

Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.

The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with strong democratic traditions. The executive branch itself has two leaders: Since World War II, they were marginalized while French politics became characterised by two politically opposed groupings: In the presidential and legislative elections, radical centrist party En Marche!

France uses a civil legal system; [90] that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law.

Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV. In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society.

As Guy Canivet , first president of the Court of Cassation , wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality.

That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

French law is divided into two principal areas: Private law includes, in particular, civil law and criminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law.

However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited.

France does not recognise religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemy laws nor sodomy laws the latter being abolished in Since , civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May , same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal in France.

Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech. Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

Nonetheless, it does recognize religious associations. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.

However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom , and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

In , France was the fourth-largest in absolute terms donor of development aid in the world, behind the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

The following special units are also part of the Gendarmerie: There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. Other smaller parades are organised across the country.

The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s. As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2.

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.

The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy.

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